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To examine the impact of different water temperatures on the urban climate, simulations were performed for two water temperatures, 18 °C and 23 °C which span the range of possible water temperatures during the summer months.
The impact of the heat load mitigation measures refer, if not mentioned otherwise, to the temperature changes within the built-up surroundings. To minimize the influence of boundary effects on the urban climate, the first 5 boundary grid cells in each direction were excluded from the evaluation.
Besides the park and water surfaces, the remaining grid cells of the model have the identical land use class, which is either sparse residential area (LU1) representative for Vienna suburban areas, or medium dense residential area (LU3) representative for the Vienna city centre.
The urban park is simulated with a tree density of 28 %.
Due to the advection in the model the air-masses can be transferred between the grid cells.
In that way the cooling effect is not restricted to the modified surface, but can be transported to neighbouring areas dependent on the wind speed and direction.
An overview of the modelling simulations is given in Table A1.
Four parks or water areas with an equal size of 25 ha are evenly distributed within the centre of the model with a separation of 1 km in the x- and y-direction to account for possible interaction between the next park or water area.
This could be reduced by introducing vegetation and open water surfaces in urban design.This study evaluates the cooling efficiency of green and blue infrastructure to reduce urban heat load using a set of idealized case simulations and a real city model application for Vienna.The idealized case simulations show that the cooling effect of green and blue infrastructure is dependent on the building type, time of the day and in case of blue infrastructure, the water temperature.The approach of idealized case modelling provides the opportunity to draw more general conclusions due to the systematic experiment structure.
The heterogeneity of the urban land cover is limited to a minimum (2 or 3 land use classes) in order to analyse only the quantitative impact of individual or combined adaptation measures on urban climate.The domain size used for Vienna covers an area of 31 km × 24 km using an equidistant grid with 100 m horizontal resolution.